drove to Sarapiquí, a little-known area in Costa Rica, throughout a short respite of dry climate between Hurricanes Eta and Iota in the hunt for a miniature tropical bat. Right here, conservation efforts large and small are combating to protect a lowland tropical rainforest with astonishing biodiversity, together with one of many smallest and most lovable mammals: Ectophylla alba, also called the Honduran white bat or Caribbean tent-making bat.
I might been warned that these bats aren’t at all times straightforward to search out. They stay in chosen lowland rainforest habitats from Honduras to japanese Panama. In Costa Rica, I attempted my luck at Tirimbina Rainforest Middle, a 345-hectare non-public reserve. At first look, the neighbourhood appeared an unlikely locale for a rainforest. Pineapple plantations dominated on all sides and spiky inexperienced shrubs stretched to the horizon. However tucked away behind an unassuming inexperienced gate was an ecological oasis that protects practically 4,000 species of crops and animals.
My information, Emmanuel Rojas Valerio, led me throughout a 270m chain-linked suspension bridge over the roaring Sarapiquí River. In the course of the river was the small island of “La Isla”, as soon as a biologist’s heaven for learning the bats on account of its abundance of heliconia crops. The tent-making bats chew a perforated ridge into heliconia leaves, comparable in form to banana leaves, to kind tents the place they roost in the course of the day. The crops are simply shaken, which is among the causes they make appropriate properties. The leaves turn into alarm bells as quickly as predators, similar to snakes, owls and opossums, contact them, giving the bats an opportunity to flee.
In 2015, extreme flooding worn out La Isla. Although, by the look of it now, I would not have identified. Huge cecropia and balsa bushes had already grown taller than the bridge, and dense vegetation obscured the island ground. The tiny bats, nonetheless, have not but returned. Scientists speculate that the understory is just too crowded with new development, making it exhausting for them to simply depart their tents.
However we had been fortunate that day. Contained in the reserve, only a few hundred meters after the bridge, Rojas Valerio identified fraying empty tents alongside our path, then led me into marshy woods with mud as much as our ankles. Within the center was a neatly folded leaf with a brown ridge on prime. Beneath, the bats regarded like a handful of fuzzy inexperienced seeds, a surprisingly efficient type of camouflage. When Rojas Valerio turned on his torch, they reworked into white cotton balls with yellow-orange noses and ears. A shiver ran by means of the upside-down colony of 5 females, one male and a child. One opened its eyes and stared at us, dewy black slits embedded in snowy fur.
It was inconceivable to not coo. One of many smallest fruit-eating bats on the planet, the tent-making bat has a mean wingspan of simply 10cm and weighs roughly 6g – a couple of teaspoon-and-a-half of sugar. In keeping with Bernal Rodriguez, bat biologist and professor on the College of Costa Rica, these diminutive creatures are the one identified mammals with an accumulation of carotenoid pigment, the chemical that accounts for the brilliant yellow of their ears and nostril. The carotenoid comes from peels of the bats’ meals: cranberry-like figs from a specific tree, Ficus columbrinae, that develop close to rivers. Latest research by Rodriguez and his group counsel that the colouring is a trait of sexual choice. Males which can be bigger and effectively fed have brighter colors, a function that pulls females.
Rojas Valerio defined that the colony we discovered will depart their roost at sunset to journey practically a kilometre to the riverbank for figs, and solely figs. “They do not at all times come again to the identical tent,” he mentioned. “They make many homes the place they’ll cease alongside the best way. However at all times in heliconia leaves.”
Specialists, not generalists
It is this specialisation that makes the tent-making bat, now categorized as a close to threatened species, weak. “[The bats] need to stay close to the ficus, which signifies that their habitat could be very particular,” mentioned Rodriguez, who has been learning the species for many years. “That is why you see the bat in a single place after which stroll only a few kilometres and can’t see any.”
If consuming just one sort of meals and dwelling in just one sort of residence weren’t specialised sufficient, tent-making bats additionally favor particular moments in a forest’s life cycle. They want sufficient daylight to achieve the forest ground to camouflage of their heliconia tents and keep heat, and likewise sufficient cover cowl to guard them from rain and wind. As a forest matures and the cover turns into denser, situations turn into much less hospitable.
Forest regeneration, the method by which previous development dies and makes room for brand spanking new development, is important to defending this species. The most important reserve in Sarapiquí, La Selva, used to have many colonies of tent-making bats, however their numbers diminished as cover cowl elevated. Years from now, that will change as older bushes fall, once more creating beneficial situations for the bats. La Selva, one of many oldest analysis stations within the nation, maintains an necessary organic hall with Braulio Carrillo Nationwide Park, a big swath of virgin forest. A pioneer within the non-public conservation motion, La Selva has impressed dozens of smaller reserves, similar to Tirimbina, that work collectively to safeguard forest cowl.
“Generally, it is higher to have a giant patch of forest than disconnected patches. You are capable of maintain extra species populations and have much less of a border impact,” mentioned Amanda Vicente Santos, a researcher at Emory College in Atlanta, Georgia and former scholar of Rodriguez. Vicente Santos examines the immunology of bats to higher perceive human affect on tropical ecosystems. Typically, it is on the borders between habitats the place species commerce illnesses or present misery that’s predictive of broader penalties.
Whereas tent-making bats do effectively near rivers the place meals is considerable, Vicente Santos makes clear that they want a “fixed pure succession of crops with out people”. Forests like Tirimbina and La Selva, the place regeneration is fixed, are important to sustaining their numbers.
Training as conservation
Bats have lengthy been maligned as bloodthirsty symbols of horror, and the hyperlink between the coronavirus pandemic and bats hasn’t helped. With quite a few bat-focused excursions throughout the nation and host to extra that 100 species, Costa Rica has turn into a myth-busting chief. Annabelle Nuñez Porras who cares for orphaned child bats on the Bat Jungle, a conservation organisation in Monteverde, Costa Rica, says that the stereotypes are fully at odds with bats’ true nature. “Bats aren’t fighters,” Nuñez Porras mentioned. “They typically share house and meals and stay in concord [with each other].” Tent-making bats, described as “cute” even in scientific journals just like the Journal of Mammalogy, are notably helpful in combating misconceptions and galvanizing conservation.The stereotypes are fully at odds with bats’ true
Tirimbina’s method emphasises native engagement. “We would like individuals who stay round right here to hook up with nature,” mentioned Mariela Garcia Sánchez, a biologist and Tirimbina’s schooling director. For greater than 20 years, the reserve has been main free environmental schooling lessons for close by public faculties. Till the pandemic hit, roughly 1,500 youngsters participated yearly in these programmes. “Of their preschool books, these children see lions, giraffes and elephants,” mentioned Garcia Sánchez, who leads the lessons. “However the place are the ectophylla and tolomucos [tayras – weasel-like mammals], the animals of their group? With out schooling, there isn’t any conservation.”
In Sarapiquí, the place many individuals depend on plantation work for earnings, constructing consciousness round conservation has taken time. Rojas Valerio, born and raised not removed from Tirimbina, says he was fascinated about wildlife as a toddler, however for years the one work he may discover was in pineapple plantations and promoting tropical birds. At one level, he owned 50 birds, most of them ones he caught himself.
In 2004, Rojas Valerio joined Tirimbina by happenstance for a two-week development job. He quickly started serving to visiting biologists and studying to determine completely different species. However his employment had one contingency. “I needed to free the birds I used to be holding,” he mentioned.
Not lengthy after, Rojas Valerio began working with Rodriguez as a area assistant, a job that turned the schooling he’d by no means had. He is since contributed to scientific papers on bats and birds, produced his personal analysis questions and attended ecology conferences throughout Latin America. “I by no means anticipated to be a part of the scientific studying, to be producing information,” he mentioned.
Conservation and schooling efforts have a direct affect in the neighborhood the place he lives. Caging and promoting birds and killing bats was frequent practices. “Now most of the children we educated years in the past are mother and father who worth and hook up with nature,” mentioned Rojas Valerio. “They arrive to the reserve and ask to see the little white bats.”
The place to see the bats
Travellers can help bat conservation and study extra about bats by means of reserves and conservation teams all through Costa Rica.
Tirimbina Rainforest Middle gives academic day and night time excursions. When accessible, guests can observe night mist netting investigations the place bat specialists fastidiously seize and launch bats as a part of a 10-year information assortment effort to trace bat populations within the reserve. The expertise contains data on myths and ecological advantages of bats. The reserve additionally has lodging and an onsite restaurant.
The Bat Jungle in Monteverde, a mountainous cloud forest area on Costa Rica’s Pacific facet, gives 45-minute guided excursions of its bat enclosure. Although tent-making bats aren’t native to the world and so aren’t a part of the exhibit, guests can see eight completely different species of fruit and nectar-eating bats. Most are long-term residents that had been discovered both orphaned or injured and couldn’t return to the wild. Guests can observe bat behaviour up shut and listen to echolocation, the soundwaves bats use to find objects, in actual time by means of ultrasonic microphones.
Whereas not particular to bats, La Selva Analysis Station gives guided day and night time excursions by means of its 61km of trails. Along with tent-making bats, La Selva has logged greater than 60 different bat species within the reserve. Lodging and an onsite restaurant are additionally accessible.
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